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Sohle seo u se hlokang ho tseba ka spiro lik'hemik'hale

Sohle seo u se hlokang ho tseba ka spiro lik'hemik'hale

Selelekela ho metsoako ea Spiro

Spiro motsoako ke motsoako oa limela tseo ka tsona likhabiso tse peli tsa bicyclic li kopantsoe ke athomo e le 'ngoe. Ka tlhaho, mehaho ea mehele e ka ba e ts'oanang kapa e fapaneng, 'me athomo e kopanyang mehele ena e' meli e bitsoa spiroatom (athomo ea lebelo), hangata ke sehlopheng sa 4 carbon (se tsejoang hape e le mocheso o khanyang), 'me se ka khona hape e be silicon, phosphorus, kapa arsenic. Hangata atho ea spiro e na le athomo ea carbon ea quaternary. Spiro motsoako o tla sebelisa li-parentheses hore li ngole palo ea mehele ka thōko. Nomoro ea ring e boetse e na le athomo ea spiro ka boeona, 'me palo e nyenyane e tla ba ka pel'a palo mme e arohane le letheba.

Bonyane mehele e 'meli ea molek'hule e arolelana athomo ea carbon (ka metsoako e meng, liathomo tse ling, tse kang silicon, phosphorus, arsenic, joalo-joalo). Mehele ena e 'meli e teng lifofaneng tse peli ka ho lekana: li-spiro tse nkeloang sebaka ke li-chiral' me li ka rarolloa ka li-isomers tsa optical (sheba se-optical isomerism). Ka mokhoa oa sebopeho, H2C = C = CH2 ke leseli le bonolo ka ho fetisisa la spiro, mme mokhoa o nepahetseng oa ho nkela sebaka se kang 1,3-propadienediic acid o sebetsa ka mokhoa o sebetsang 'me o ka arohana ka li-isomere tse peli tse sebetsang ka mokhoa o sebetsang. 'mele.

Classificatio

(1) Ho ea ka palo ea liathomo tsa spiro, spiro e kenyelletsoeng e ka hlalosoa e le motsoako o le mong oa spiro, dispiro, spiro e tharo, le methapo e mengata e nang le liathomo tse ngata tsa spiro.

(2) Carbocyclic spiro e kenyelletsoa mme spiro e entsoeng ka mahlaseli a kotsi e ka aroloa ho latela mofuta oa athomo e lokelang ho ba teng, 'me ha athomo ea carbon e fetoha motsoako oa carbocyclic spiro e nkeloa sebaka ke athomo e' ngoe, e entsoeng ke spiro e entsoeng ka mahetla.

(3) Ho ea ka mofuta oa lenaka, o ka aroloa ka lik'hemik'hale tse sa silafatsoang, tse sa tsitsitseng, tse nkhang hamonate le tsa aliphatic.

(4) Li-heterospirocyclic li kopane. Athomo ea spiro mokokotlong oa spiro e ka ba athomo ea carbon kapa lintho tse ling tse kang Si, N, P, Ge le tse ling. Haeba athomo ea spiro ke athomo ea tšepe, hangata tlamo ea khokahanyo e thehoa, 'me motsoako o joalo oa spiro o bitsoa motsoako oa ho hokahanya haterocyclic.

Polymeric spiro e kenyelletsoa

Polymeric spiro e entsoeng ke motsoako oa liathomo tse peli kapa tse fetang tse peli joaloka mehele e meraro kapa ho feta. Ha o reha lebitso la spiro, motsoako oa linomoro o eketsang di-, tri-, tetra-, ..., joalo-joalo lebitso le bolela palo ea liathomo tsa spiro tse teng ka ho khetheha pakeng tsa mehele. Liathomo tse entsoeng ka spiro li baliloe ka mokhoa o hlophisitsoeng. Tlhaloso ea polyspirocyclic methapo e qala ka molek'hule ea ring e kopanyang athomo ea spiro, e bitsoang seletsa sa ho qetela. Limolek'hule tsena tsa polyspirocyclic li ka ba le mehele e 'meli kapa ho feta' me li kopantsoe ho motsoako oa multi-spirocyclic. Har'a bona, athomo e le 'ngoe feela ea moea e hokahane. Lebitso la nomenclature ka reng ea ho qetela le qalisoa ke atho e haufi le atho ea spiro, e ngotsoeng e le nomoro 1, 'me molek'hule e baloa joale ka molek'hule.

Mehele e 'meli kapa e mengata ea ho qetela, lenane le qalang la rengolo ea ho qetela e tla ba le mokhoa o mong oa khetho. Ha spiroatom ea pele e baloa, li-spiro tse latelang li lokela ho amahanngoa le tse nyenyane ka ho fetisisa tse ka khonehang. Ho bala. A re re ho na le motsoako o nang le mehele e 'meli, e nang le liathomo tsa 6, e' ngoe e nang le liathomo tsa 8. Ho bala ho qalile ka lesale la liathomo tsa 6, hobane ka mor'a ho bala, spiroatom e tla baloa 6. Haeba lesale le nang le liathomo tsa 8 li qala, spiroatom e tla baloa 8. Tataiso ea nomoro e khethoa ke spiroatom (ho qala ka spiroatom ea pele ea lenaka la ho qetela le se le filoe). Ha re re athomo ea kokong e qala ho bala ka lehlakoreng le le leng, 'me haeba palo e le tlaase ho palo ka lehlakoreng le leng, atomoro ea khefu e khethoa. Tataiso e nang le nomoro e nyenyane e sebelisetsoa ho qala ho reha lebitso. Ho latela athomo ea moea, palo ea nomoro ha ea bohlokoa haholo. Maemong a mang, tse peli, tse tharo, tse 'nè kapa tse ling tsa spiroatoms li tla etsoa lenane le le leng ho sa tsotellehe hore na li baloa hokae. Khetho ea tataiso ea linomoro e khethiloe ka ts'ebetso ea ho bala ha palo e fapaneng ea liathomo e hlaseloa, 'me tataiso ea liathomo tse tlaase tse baloang ka tlase e khethiloe. Ka mohlala, haeba tsamaiso ea linomoro e le tataiso e 'ngoe, palo ea spiroatom e le 3, 5, 7, 10, le palo ea spiroatoms ka lehlakoreng le leng ke 3, 5, 7, 9, ebe tataiso ea nomoro ea bobeli e khethiloe. . Tabeng ena, ka nģa ea nomoro ea pele, palo pakeng tsa liathomo tse peli tsa moea e na le 7 le 10, le ka nomoro e fapaneng, 7 le 9. Palo ea leha e le efe ea aterese ea morao ka mor'a moo hase ea bohlokoa, 'me tataiso ea nomoro e khethiloe ke tataiso ea nomoro 9.

Ha ho khethoa mehele e mengata ea spiro, nomoro ea pele ho li-parentheses e bontša hore athomo ea pele e haufi le atho ea spiro ke palo e le 'ngoe. Linomoro tse setseng li emela palo ea liathomo pakeng tsa liathomo tsa spiro, kapa liathomo tse kenyelletsoeng. Nomoro e 'ngoe le e' ngoe e arotsoe ke nako (nako ea Senyesemane). Mohlala ona, ho na le liathomo tse peli (1 le 2) pele ho spiroatom (3) ea pele. Ha ho na liathomo tse pakeng tsa 3 le 4 spiroatoms, mme ho joalo le bakeng sa spiroatoms ho 4 le 5, 5 le 6. Ho na le liathomo tse peli ka lehare la bobeli la ho qetela, 6 le 5, 5 le 4, 'me ho na le pakeng tsa 4 le 3.

Ka hona, ho latellana [2.0.0.0.2.1.1.1] ho fumanoa. Mohlala ho le letona, ho na le li-spiroatoms tse peli, ka hona lebitso la dispiro le qala. Khalong ea pele ea ho qetela, ho na le liathomo tse peli, tse bontšang lebitso dispiro [2. Ka mor'a moo, ho na le liathomo tse le 'ngoe le tse' nè tse ling tse pakeng tsa li-spiroatoms, tse senolelang lebitso la likhoka tse peli [2.1.3 5. Sepheo sa bobeli sa spiroatom, se nang le 5, se kenyelelitsoe e le tsela e tla kopana le palo ea liathomo ka mor'a hore palo ea liathomo e beheletsoe, nako ea ho qetela e eketsa liathomo tsa 9 le 10 pakeng tsa 3 le 5 spiroatoms 'me u kenye alkane nomoro e le 'ngoe ea liathomo tsa spiro e kenyelletsoeng, e hlakileng, e bitsoang nameispiro [2.1.3 5 .2 3] sekhahla se senotsoeng ke lebitso.

Nomenclature e tloaelehileng ea spiro lik'hemik'hale
Sehlopha sa monospirocyclic se khetholla lebitso la motsoali hydrocarbon ho ea ka palo e feletseng ea liathomo tsa carbon tse kenyelletsoeng ho thehoa; liathomo tsohle tse nang le lesale la spiro li baloa ka tatellano ea lesale le lenyenyane le leholo le liathomo tsa spiro li fokotsoa; joale li lateloa ke li-brackets. Ho latellana ha palo ea ring eohle ho bontšoa ka palo ea liathomo tsa carbon tse arotsoeng pakeng tsa liathomo tsa spiro, hammoho le ka pel'a lebitso la ketane ea hydrocarbon e lumellanang le lesale eohle; lipalo li aroloa ke letheba le tlaase, ka foromo: snail [a, b] an alkane.

Hybrid screw

Pheliso ea anomeric ea ring ea heterospiral e bolela hore liathomo tse peli tsa motlakase kapa li-elektronike tse le 'ngoe tse nang le li-electrone li lekana le ho fokotsa nako ea dipole ea molek'hule le ho fokotsa matla a intramolecular. Ka 1968, sehlopha sa lipatlisiso sa Descotes se ile sa qala ho etsa tlhahiso ea hore ho na le phello ea anomerica. Ha ba ithuta bicyclic acetal, ba fumane hore metsoako ena e 'meli e ka tlaase mona e na le 57% ea sehlahisoa sa cis le 43% ea sekhahla sa motlakase ho motsoako oa equilibri ho 80 C. Palo ea sekhahla sa motlakase trans The setomer e ne e tsitsitse ka phapang ea matla ea 0.71 kJ / mol. Ka lebaka la phello ea anomeric ea mohloli oa cis, trans isomer ha e na phello e joalo.

Bokhopo

Tse ling tsa likhofu li na le lefu la axial. Li-spiroatoms e ka ba litsi tsa chiral, esita le ha li haelloa ke libaka tse fapaneng tse fapaneng tse hlokahalang bakeng sa ho boloka likokoana-hloko. Ha mehele ena e 'meli e le ts'ebetso, CIP tsamaiso e fana ka khato ea bohlokoa ho atolosa ho eketsoa ha lesale e le' ngoe le e 'ngoe ea bohlokoa pele. E ka sebelisoa ha lesale le sa tšoane.

Lik'hemik'hale tsa li-cyclic li ka hlalosoa ka litsela tse latelang:

• Motsoako oa Alicyclic

Ena ke motsoako oa lihlahisoa tse nang le lihlahisoa tsa aliphatic le motsoako oa cyclic. Li na le mekhabiso ea carbocyclic e le 'ngoe kapa tse ngata tse khotsofatsang kapa tse sa senyehang, empa mehele ha e monko.

• Naphthenic

Ho ea ka boholo ba reng, naphthenes e ka aroloa ho ba banyenyane, ba mahareng le ba kholo. Cyclopropane le cyclobutane li nkoa li le nyenyane. Cyclopentane e tloaelehileng, cyclohexane, cycloheptane, le cyclooctane ho ea cyclotridecane li boholo bo lekaneng, 'me tse khōloanyane li nkoa e le naphthenes e kholo.

Cycloolefin

Ena ke motlakase o nang le motlakase o nang le carbon-carbon carbon bond. Monoolefins e bonolo ka cyclic e akarelletsa cyclopropene, cyclobutene, cyclopentene le cyclohexene, ha li-cyclic acid li na le cyclopropadiene, cyclobutadiene, cyclopentadiene. Emetse. Li-olefin tse ling tse kang li-cycbuteneand cyclopentene, li ka nkoa e le li-monomers ho etsa lipolisi.

• Monko o monate oa hydrocarbon

Li-hydrocarbon tse bonolo ka ho fetisisa le tsa bohlokoa ka ho fetisisa ke li-benzene le li-homologues tsa tsona tse kang toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene le tse ling. Ka monate, mehele e meng e nkhang hamonate ha e na mehaho e feletseng ea benzene, empa liathomo tsa carbon li ho tsona li nkeloa sebaka ke naetrojene, oksijene, sebabole le lisebelisoa tse ling. Re li bitsa li-heterocycle, tse kang yuan tse hlano joaloka furan. Lesale le na le athomo ea oksijene 'me pyrrole e na le athomo ea naetrojene. Thiophene e na le athomo ea sebabole le tse ling.

'Me aromatics e ka aroloa ka:

• Monocyclic e nkhang hamonate ea hydrocarbon
• Polycyclic e nkhang hamonate ea hydrocarbon
Hangata li-hydrocarbon tse nkhang hamonate tse nang le sebōpeho sa ketane li bitsoa li-aliphatic arenes, 'me li-hydrocarbon tse nkhang hamonate tse tloaelehileng li na le toluene, ethylbenzene, styrene le tse ling tse joalo.
• Motsoako oa Heterocyclic

E na le lesale la monko o se nang monko oa heterocyclic kapa motho ea nkang sebaka. Tse ngata tsa tsona li tsejoa kapa li ka 'na tsa e-ba le likokoana-hloko. Mokhoa o bonolo ka ho fetisisa oa lik'hemik'hale ona ke naphthalene, e nang le mehele e 'meli e nkhang hamonate, hammoho le metsoako ea tricyclic ruthenium le phenanthrene.

Polycyclic e nkhang hamonate ea hydrocarbon ke limolek'hule tse se nang lehlakore, tse se nang pola tse fumanehang ka mashala le li-tar. Hape li entsoe ka lintho tse phelang ka mollo (mohlala, enjene le motlakase, ha meru e tuka mollong o tsitsitseng, joalo-joalo). Ka mohlala, e hlahisoa ke ho chesa ha likhase tse nang le mafura joaloka patsi, mashala a mapolanka, mafura le koae. E fumanoa hape linthong tse hahiloeng.

Li-polycyclic tse nang le monko o monate ka holim'a mehele e meraro li na le matla a tlaase a ho kokobela le a tlaase moeeng. Ha boima ba 'mele bo ntse bo eketseha, boima ba' mele le khatello ea mocheso lia theoha. Li-bicyclic polycyclic tse nang le monko o nang le monko o nang le mocheso o fokolang le khatello ea mouoane. Ka hona, metsoako e monate ea polycyclic e fumanoa mobu le libakeng tse ngata ho feta metsi le moea. Leha ho le joalo, metsoako e monate ea polycyclic e atisa ho fumanoa ka lihlahisoa tse emisitsoeng moeeng.

Likokoana-hloko tse ngata tsa polycyclic li 'nile tsa hlalosoa e le likokoana-hloko. Litlaleho tsa liteko tsa meriana li bontša hore nako e telele ho pepeseha ha metsoako e phahameng ea polycyclic metsoako e ka hlahisang kankere ea letlalo, kankere ea matšoafo, kankere ea mala le kankere ea sebete. Li-polycyclic tse nang le monko o monate li ka senya liphatsa tsa lefutso 'meleng, li etsa hore likokoana-hloko li hōle' me li eketsa tšoaetso ea kankere.

Ha boima ba limolek'hule bo ntse bo eketseha, kankere ea polycyclic e nkhang hamonate e boetse e eketseha, 'me leqeba le kotsi le fokotseha. Sebaka se nang le monko o monate oa polycyclic, Benzo [a] pyrene (Benzo [a] pyrene), e ne e le eona lefu la pele la lik'hemik'hale tse hlahisang lik'hemik'hale.

kopo

Setsebi sa ho atolosa pola

The shrinkage ea volume ea polymer nakong ea polymerization kapa ho tiisa matla a bakoa ke matla a van der Waals pakeng tsa limolek'hule tsa monomone sebakeng sa mokelikeli kapa limolek'hule tse telele tse se nang metsi, le sebaka se pakeng tsa limolek'hule li le khōlō; kamora 'polymerization kapa crosslinking, maqhama a kopanetsoeng pakeng tsa likaroloana feela a fella ka shrinkage ea molumo oa polymer. Ho boleloa hore ka linako tse ling shrinkage e bolaea polymeri, e kang ho baka botsofali bo potlakileng ba polymer, deformation le ho fokotsa tshebetso e akaretsang. E le hore ho sebetsanoe le bothata ba ho pholletsa le li-polymer, phekolo ea metsoako e entse boiteko bo sa khaotseng, empa ka kakaretso e ka fokotseha 'me e ke ke ea felisa ka ho feletseng khanya ea molumo. Ho fihlela 1972, Bailey et al. ba hlahisa letoto la spiro compounds mme ba fumana hore lik'hemik'hale tsena li na le polymerized. Ha molumo o sa fokotsehe, oa eketseha. Ho sibolloa ha li-monomer tse eketsehileng ho khahlile thahasello ea bo-rasaense ba bangata, 'me lipatlisiso tse ngata li entsoe. Li-monomers tse atolositsoeng li fetohile thepa e sebetsang haholo ea polasetiki. Lik'hemik'hale tse kang spiro orthoester le spiro orthocarbonate ke mekhahlelo e ntle ea ho atolosa 'me li sebelisitsoe ho lokisetsa lihlopha tse phahameng tsa matla, li-binders tse phahameng, lisebelisoa tsa polase tse nang le mefuta e meholo le lisebelisoa tsa lipolisi tsa bongaka. Ho fetoloa ha lipolisi tsa morero ka kakaretso le ho hlahisa li-oligomers tse nang le lihlopha tse sebetsang.

electroluminescence

Ho sa tsotellehe hore na lihlahisoa tsa manyolo li hlahisa leseli le bokahohle ba tlhahiso ea leseli le bokhoni ba ho tsoa ha leseli ho itšetlehile haholo ka lik'hemik'hale. Hangata li-fluorescence li hlaha limolek'hule tse nang le lifofane tse thata le tse khonang ho li sebelisa, e leng ho matlafatsang motlakase oa ho kopanya li-electron le lihlomo tsa limolek'hule, tse leng molemo ho ntlafatsa mokhoa o nepahetseng oa fluorescence. Ho na le lisebelisoa tse ngata tsa lisebelisoa tse lefifi. Mefuta e ka sehloohong ke: reng ea spiro, poly-p-phenylene vinylene, polythiophene, polythiadiazole le metsoako ea tšebeliso ea tšepe. Har'a bona, metsoako ea spirocyclic e nkhang hamonate e na le mekhoa e meholo ea conjugated le Molemo o tsitsitseng le coplanarity, mocheso o khanyang oa khalase le boemo bo phahameng ba mocheso. El device e sebetsa habonolo mme ha e hloke lisebelisoa tse rarahaneng, ka hona ho ka khoneha ho fokotsa litšenyehelo tsa tlhahiso nakong ea nako le ho lokisetsa lisebelisoa tsa sebaka se seholo habonolo.

pesticide

Moriri o khabisitsoeng le spiro motsoako o nang le hetero atom ha ho bonolo ho hlahisa khanyetso ka lebaka la mekhoa ea bona e ikhethang, 'me ba lebisitsoe tlhokomelo e kholo ho nts'etsopele ea likokoana-hloko. Ka mohlala: Rudi le al. ho tlalehile hore 3,9-dichloro-2,4,8,10-tetraoxa-3,9-diphosphaspiro [5.5] e sa hlakileng-3,9-dioxide le sulfide Hydrogen e ile ea arajoa ha e etsa li-spiro e ncha, 3,9-dihydro-3,9-dithio-2,4,8,10-tetraoxa-3,9-diphospho [5.5] ho sa tsotellehe. Lihlahisoa tsa eona ke sehlopha se secha sa likokoana-hloko tsa organophosphate le likokoana-hloko, tse ka atlehang ho tlosa mosetareta, ragweed, joalo-joalo ho koro, lijo-thollo, k'hothone le soya.